Respect for people, and their rights, incorporates at least two fundamental principles:
- Respect for the autonomy requires informed consent from those who are capable of deliberation. Researchers should inform participants of what they will be asked to do, any risks they may be exposed to, how their information may be used, and that their participation is voluntary and that they may withdraw in part or completely from the study at any time without any adverse consequences.
- Protection of those with impaired or diminished autonomy (such as children and individuals with disabilities that limit full autonomy) requires that those who are dependent or vulnerable be afforded additional security against harm. Consent should be obtained on behalf of such participants by someone who is authorized to act on their behalf. When the participant’s wishes are knowable, the wishes of such participants should be taken into account.