Justice requires that there is a fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of participation in a study and, for any participant, a balance of burdens and benefits. Accordingly, investigators must:
- Avoid imposing on particular groups an unfair burden of participation in intervention studies (e.g. vulnerable members of a community should not bear disproportionate burdens of studies from which other members of the community are intended to benefit)
- Design studies so that the inclusion and exclusion conditions for participants are fair.